The purpose of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of differentiated instruction in primary and secondary education through the analysis of 21 surveys of the last decade (2008-2018) in Greece and internationally. The mobilization and improvement of trainees' performance, the attitudes and beliefs of students and teachers, the advantages, the difficulties, the conditions for its effective implementation are examined to identify any gaps and to make proposals for further research. The results of the review of literature show that differentiated instruction contributes to mobilizing students, improving their performance, and developing more positive attitudes and beliefs of learners and teachers. Students' universal participation, professional development of teachers, knowledge and experience, focus on creating a group of students in diverse classes, are described as the main advantages of this method. The teachers' misconceptions about the basic principles of differentiated instruction, the increased preparation time, the demanding and laborious process, the lack of time and the logistical infrastructure, are recorded as the major difficulties.The contribution of positive assessment to its implementation by teachers, their familiarity with the specific teaching method and their professional development are recorded as the most important conditions for the effective implementation of differentiated instruction.