Τhis work is a brief bibliographic review on the effect of constructional play on the cognitive, social and emotional development of children during pre-school and early school age. The concept of constructive play includes an open process of discovery and holistic learning, during which children acquire in-house motivation, practice in decision-making and feel pleasure that they self-act experiment and create constructions. Thus, teachers need to organize and implement educational actions beyond the curriculum's academic objectives, in which children will have opportunities to actively engage in constructional play within and out of the school community. In this way, children will collect and process information, familiarize themselves with new experiences and practices and develop basic socio-cognitive and emotional skills such as autonomy, imagination, problem solving, empathy and positive self-esteem. As a result, children will become readier to respond adequately to school requirements, regardless of the existing limitations and deficiencies of their immediate and wider family and socio-cultural environment.