The Learning Organization (L.O.) has been presented since the end of the 20th century by many researchers as a model organization that can learn, adapt and evolve. Utilizes the integration of learning in work and is transformed by collaborative practices, aiming at the continuous upgrading of the organization and its members. In particular, school organizations, in the ever-changing, globalized and competitive context of the 21st century, must transform their culture and function as L.O. Thus, especially the public school will survive, develop and realize a common vision for continuous improvement, modernization, quality and efficiency, with equal opportunities for all, meeting the expectations of its members and fulfilling its social mission. The purpose of this paper is through literature review of scientific articles, studies and books to attempt on the one hand the conceptualization of L.O. and on the other hand the documented presentation of the necessity of transforming the public school culture into a L.O. culture and the practices-elements required for its transformation.